West Africa was unexpectedly rapped, parcelled and alienated with the catchphrase” acquire what you can but do not fight about it” Colonization had begun. The British Gold Coast was established in 1821. Before then the West African youth was happy, the greatest gift in life.The British detained privately owned lands at the coastal regions in addition as the Danish Gold Coast in 1850 and the Dutch Gold Coast and Fort Elmina in 1871. By 1901, the Gold Coast was a British colony. The Gold Coast (Ghana) assisted the British in battles in World War 1 and 11 in Cameroon and in the East Africa campaign respectively in addition as granting Ghana independence.
Economic and social development
In the twentieth century the British administered the Gold Coast. They continue that there was meaningful progress in social, economic, and educational development. Communications improved because the Sekondi-Tarkwa railroad, which began in 1898, was extended to connect important enterprise centre’s of the south, and by 1937, there were 9,700 kilometres of roads. They initiated Telecommunication and postal sets. There was an economic system in which, the British controlled the country’s trade and industry. There were no industries which was a social system in which the developing nations needed in order to survive. There was no answerability.
The Gold Coast (Ghana) was not mechanized and had to depend on the industrialized countries. Britain and the Western European countries who took Ghana`s riches were regarded as built-up countries together with the recipient of the Triangular Trade, America. Ghana was branded as Non-built-up country. It was a term applied, to include Africa, Asia, and Latin America which were formerly colonized. American collaborators identified themselves the First World and the Eastern nations were acknowledged as the Second or the Third World. The Third World countries that produced oil were Gabon, Algeria, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Nigeria. No one characterized them as third worlds except Nigeria. These countries attained economically because they could raise oil prices whenever it suited them. They were aware of the fact that the industrialized world was dependent on oil. The Oil producing countries were the (OPEC) countries.
Definite countries produced basic raw materials such as Jamaica, Australia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. Chile, Peru, Zaire and Zambia who produced copper were not cost-effective as in oil, because, the industrial world depended on oil instead of copper. The countries that produced cocoa, coffee and other foods, such as Brazil, the Ivory Coast, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan had some economic gain whilst countries such as Ghana attained less from its export of cocoa. However, EEC assured reasonable income for countries with agricultural products but Ghana had not profited by it despite the British inheritance.
However, the general state and manner of survival in Ghana was not branded by adversity and distress. General public dealt effectively with their struggles and situations. They tried to make noteworthy commendable improvement and inspiring achievements. Agriculture, farming and crop growing were in improvement. Although they did not have progressive technical and scientific aid, because the British left the country to its own strategy there were cattle’s domestic animals, farm animals, hoes, cutlasses and machetes; their ability to function was tolerable. For the young generation it was clear that poverty was not merely a subject of riches but sustainable farming. Nobody was starving; they did not have access to communal sets but they had shared meetings. They were not ill-treated; there was no aggression inside and outside their families. The young generation tried to surmount their problems by the guidance of their families, elders and chiefs and attuned to circumstances in response to their smallest requirements.
The young generations were physically powerful and their spirits could put up with the Europeans who entered their vicinity in great numbers. There was no famine in the vicinity and the citizens were, not deprived of their basic needs. The nation was not decomposed like poor figs.
It was basically in the light of the young generation who lived in it and knew what they needed to survive and, to develop a lifestyle familiar to them. There were overwhelming twists and turns in every human life irrespective of inheritance, something that was handed down, or remained from our ancestors during human developments. The young generation in West Africa knew that it was all about ability and the moment of character’s performance and timing. No human being could envisage or anticipate the activities and consequences of the works of natural world. Human beings are, expected to see what humans see. To expose something that is hid or kept secret by character can under no circumstances be seen.
The new generation in Ghana, more distant from what went before World Wars, colonialism and violence did, not take part in those harsh miseries. consequently they did not realize the mental experiencing, physical and psychosomatic pains in the lives of those men and women. In the minds of the Ghanaian young generations they feel, it is because of the dreadful insincerity of perceptiveness, dissimilarities and decisions, as a substitute of taking concern of our planet earth. The unset of Global warning was present but no one noticed because Europeans acquisition of countries.
The young generation identified the silhouetted of shortages that gloomed the people who lived in many provinces. Commanding rule was not the way out. At the back of the mind, row upon row the scars of colonialism was too thorough. The young generation of West Africa today have learned how much colonialism had changed their everyday lives. It took bravery and submissiveness to live in the colonies. Their only salvation was for the older citizens to obey to the commands of the juvenile Europeans. Many citizens died out because slavery and fears were planted in their off springs. The new generation that followed them lingered behind in progress and development of former basic importance. The way colonialism had to manager Ghana was to concede their shared background, traditions, Diasporas, tribal ties, way of thinking, insights and understanding, perspective and source of revenue. clearly, how could they have achieved and bring about all these.
Cacao was introduced in 1878 an boozed the nation’s economy in the 1920s because when disease wiped out Brazil’s cocoa trees By the end of that decade, the nation could export more than half of the world’s cocoa supply. Export of timber and gold increased but in 1890s gold mining remained in the hands of Ashanti Goldfields Corporation because of better technology, and up-to-the-minute modes. The European mining companies and the colonial government accumulated much of the riches. Returns from export of natural resources financed domestic improvements in road and rail network and societal sets. Educational structure, Achimota College which, was ahead of its time in West Africa resulted from these sells overseas revenues. The first University College of the Gold Coast was opened in 1948. Guggisberg was the governor. Technical school and teachers training college was established at Accra in 1909 and missionaries set up secondary schools.
Natural resources such as gold, metal ores, ivory, diamonds, timber, pepper, cocoa, bauxite, manganese, grain were shipped from the Gold Coast by the British. In addition the Akosombo Dam built in 1965 on the Volta River exports hydro electricity to the neighbouring countries. The British built a railway system and a complicated transport infrastructure in modern-day Ghana. We, the young generation never benefitted from these sets except some tradition Hospitals and Schools as reward for the Ghanaian produce exported. It answers some of the questions why Africa with all its assets never developed and why there is poverty. However, by 1945, limitless demands for sovereignty by the Gold Coast population were beginning to arise, in the wake of the end of the Second World War and the beginnings of the decolonization progression across the world.
In modern Ghana,oilfield containing up to 3 billion barrels (480,000,000 m3) of light oil was discovered in 2007. Exploration is current and the amount of oil continues to increase. Although, Unsuccessful economic policies of the earlier period led to inflationary arrears financing, downgrading of the Cedi, Ghana remains one of the more cost-effectively sound countries in Africa. In July, 2007, the Bank of Ghana introduced a money re-denomination exercise, from the Cedi (c) to the new money, the Ghana Cedi (GHc). The move rate is 1 Ghana Cedi for every 10,000 Cedis. In 2008 the money was stable, Exchange rate of $USD=1.1
As the country developed, and series of unfairness’ arose in the country, government strength was transferred from the British to Ghanaians. It was by students who school worked in Britain that Ghanaian leaders attained the method and the desire for self governing.
EDUCATION IN ENGLAND: The University was, approved its first written announcement unfolding the privileges of the School in 1836. There were two institutions of the University, the University College of London and the King’s College. They were, established in 1827 and 1829 respectively, the St. Bartholomew’s Medical School Hospital was part of Queen Mary and St. Thomas Medical School Hospital was part of the King’s College in London. London University operated as an examination body for the Colleges. After 1858, its degrees were obtainable to the United Kingdom and the students studying by far-off or learning all over the whole wide world. It was an External bargain.
In the nineteenth century it was not only a body for examination but centralized Teaching University.It also kept an eye one educational excellence and course contends of the academies. In 1878, the University was first to declare women into its confines. From 1888 women began to be instructed at the university. The women who were accepted, and who went all the way by complete courses in arts and science, received BA (Bachelor of Arts) and (Bachelor of Science) degrees, respectively. The university had more than 4000 students, which, was greater than Oxford and Cambridge Universities combined. consequently, it was the fifth largest university in the United Kingdom and in the world. Countless overseas students had event to be trained in politics and law, which benefited them to return to their individual countries with the knowledge they had receive to run their own. As to whether or not they, managed, reasonably and resourcefully were, based on each individual’s objectives in life. The University attracted worldwide attention in the British colonies. Britain made an effort to recommend hopefulness to people in addition as thorough human amnesty and deliberation of freedom from strife and continuing elimination of wishes aimed to hurt people by a new war. Britain consequently, built up strong opinion for human right and fair management. Britain made Laws based on the ethics of fair dealing, sympathy for the viciously treated and the readiness and capability to put up with religious practices and racial general-mindedness consequently, England was a place of possible hope for all students all over the globe to acquire knowledge.
Schools and the colleges were designed for students who had to work in order to pay for their college tuition. Britain had put in order students from all over the world a wide range of learning opportunities to those over school age. There were courses conducted in the evenings only and courses conducted during daytime only or both day and evening and had been maintained ever since. There were many students who worked and paid for their own tuition when they attended those courses. consequently, educational opportunities were for everybody, part-time or fulltime.
Retrospectively, it was all in complete swing when Portugal occupied Ceuta. Portuguese and Spanish navigators had explored the Americas and the African coasts, the Middle East, India and East Asia. Britain, France and the Netherlands, established their empires around the world and there were competitions amongst them. At the end of 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, colonization accelerated however, Portugal lost his colonies. England began to liberate its colonies, it was declaring Egypt and Iraq self-government in 1922 and 1932 respectively; they lost India, Ceylon, Burma, Malaysia and Singapore, and India in 1947, Ghana in 1954, Trans-Jordan and Palestine in 1946 and 1948 in that order. Italy departed from Libya in 1951. France lost Syria and Lebanon in 1946, Indochina (Vietnam) in 1954 in addition as Laos and Cambodia. France also lost Tunisia and Morocco two years later. The Netherlands left Indonesia in 1949. Many sub Saharan regions and Madagascar including Ghana, Malawi and Zambia were preparing for liberation from colonial rule. Portugal intended to liberate Angola, Mozambique and Belgium was to liberate Zaire (Congo).consequently, people from different regions with different cultures, languages, religions, different up-bringing, different societal make- ups had to leave their fatherland into European societies.
The world’s poor and disadvantaged countries incurred immeasurable financial amount noticeable however to be paid by ineffective countries to global monetary institutions, business-related, district expansion edges, and the governments of industrial countries. It is without a doubt one of the greatest hardship against the annihilation of global poverty. The burden of international debt prompted and prevented countless countries from developing and, to provide a minimum standard of living for the general public. This spending money is used to repay creditors and loans. consequently, education and healthcare which are of basic significance for developments are discontinued. countless afflictions plague the world’s poor and disadvantaged. The financial debt owed by Underdeveloped countries to international financial institutions, commercial and regional development edges, in addition as to the governments of developed countries, is undoubtedly one of the greatest of these hardships, and a tremendous force effective against the eradication of global poverty. Due to the burden of international debt, countless countries are prevented from developing, and from already providing a minimum standard of living for many of their citizens. This is not only because much-needed money is being sidetracked from domestic spending to repay creditors, but also because of the stringent conditions attached to certain loans. These conditions require countries to cut spending on social sets such as education and healthcare- two necessary elements for development. in spite of, some nevertheless believe that the debt must be repaid. The inner rule behind this position must first be addressed and outlined prior to discussing the reasoning for cancelling the financial debt of the world’s poorest countries. countless afflictions plague the world’s poor and disadvantaged. The financial debt owed by underdeveloped countries to international financial institutions, business and regional development edges, in addition as to the governments of developed countries, is undoubtedly one of the greatest of these hardships, and certainly a tremendous force working against the eradication of global poverty. Due to the burden of international debt, countless countries are prevented from developing, and from already providing a minimum standard of living for many of their citizens. This is not only because much-needed money is being diverted from domestic spending to pay off creditors, but also because of the harsh conditions attached to certain loans. These conditions require countries to cut spending on social sets such as education and healthcare- two necessary elements for development. in spite of, some nevertheless believe that the debt must be repaid. The rationale behind this position must first be addressed and outlined prior to discussing the reasoning for cancelling the financial debt of the world’s poorest countries.
Many countries felt quite euphoric at being free from colonialism, the new generation of free youth. Poverty had begun but citizens were unable to envisage it because it was sinister in coming. The euphemism of being self-governing blinded them. There was wealth to enjoy however; there were slums, malnutrition and disease to conquer. Population in Gold Coast was estimated to be 2.5million in the 1948s, Accra remained the capital and in 1957 the Gold Coast Colony became independent state of Ghana. The population in 1990 was approximately to be 953,500 in Accra.
In Ghana, the young generation migrated to Britain long before independence and from Belgium Congo to Belgium. Immigrants from Cape Verde, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and many other regions saturated Europe. People migrated from India to England in 1945 and 1950s, and from Pakistan, migrations took place from 1947. There were many gallant students, their courage most resolute, their devotion to country and family, unquestioning. The students had the imaginative concept that by sacrificing themselves in leaving their parents and homelands to a foreign country, they would create a world of sweetness and light for their parents and descendants to live. There were large number of reasons why countries mired in miseries to such an extent that people became deficient in every facet of livelihood and the young generation with clear vision, creative and inventive thinking needed a fresh beginning. To scores of people, Britain in 1950s was a cornucopia of education and opportunities. English was, spoken worldwide. United States of America had already gathered its proportion. They spoke English because they were English.
The young generation was thoughtful and was weighed down by anxieties both large and small because of colonialism. Most of them felt that they were persons whom, life had battered, and who had such an ordeal, that every blow and every snub made a wound and panic. Life had regularly snubbed their good intentions. At certain periods in their life’s they gave way and lost hope. They did not have any imagination to devise ways for a better life. They had to keep the potential they made to their families and to return to Africa as educated persons to help the development of the country. Some did return others not.
In retrospect, the British erected schools and outdated schools mainly in Accra, the capital, Kumasi, the second capitals while the majority of towns were left untouched. Today, the majority of British buildings are out of use. In comparison with the industrialized world, it may seem today that the British left the colony in a deplorable state. They did not. West Africans failed to take care of what was left for them because of financial teething troubles.
My mother’s passing away robbed me of a thorough and highly useful stabilizing presence. Growing up, I discovered, was a advantageous experience and provided me with a relief because of my ambitions and open expression of my strong feelings. My parents had learned from wars and miseries amongst humanity and the negative effects of colonization. My family was not judgmental and their cultures were, interwoven with every human being which was really an eye opening and humbling experience to understanding of the world we lived in. In West Africa, the family devoted themselves to each other. No one was at the end of his or her tether; we, the children of four were never at the limit of our patience or endurance, and we were never at the end of our ropes. consequently, we could understand why the Europeans felt themselves different than the West Africans, especially if nobody made an attempt to understand the way others think, their behavioural patterns and culture.
Not everyone had the opportunity to attend school because of financial difficulties, but those whom the chance of attending school to study with caring locally trained teachers, loved to go to school. The teachers understood and embraced the rare ways in which children think and learn. The rare education provided the school children all the benefits of a nurturing ecosystem. The children flourished and felt at home. The children had freedom to think creatively and to analyze new ideas because; the teachers motivated them to learn conscientiously for a better West Africa after colonialism.
Because of World War II decolonization began, West Africans and other nations began to send youthful West African students to Europe for supplementary schooling. There was peace and harmony and the traumatized decolonized humankind began to see light after wars and turbulence. A new era arose; it was a doorway to prospect without dreads and discomforts. During that period, there were travelling activities from British colonies to the United Kingdom. Britain accepted African students. There were by now African slaves brought to the United Kingdom in 1760s. They were about 14.000 according to my grandparents but by 1772, their importation to Britain stopped and the number of slaves declined. In 1939, before the strong earthquake in Ghana, and in 1945 many Africans got employment as seamen and shore workers; others hid themselves in ships and sailed to Britain without papers, capital or personal belongings. African students studying in Britain increased and migrants from many British colonies followed after 1955, the number accelerated.
Ouagadougou: the country was placed under uninterrupted conflict between 16th to early 19th century. The citizens were burnt out. However, with the arrival of the French, Ouagadougou, the country just above Ghana, was liberated by the French in the beginning of the 19th century. The chief Samori Ture was expelled by the French consequently; it was part of French West Africa. However, they attained Independence from the French in 1960.The country was renamed Burkina Faso in 1984.
.Benin: In 1625 there were slave traders, the Fon, established Dahomey and conquered the neighbouring towns and villages of Dan and Allada and extended their imperialism as far as in the vicinity of Porto Novo. France established a trading post in 1857 at Grand-Popo. The French progressive to capture because of argument against slavery in Dahomey In 1892 Dahomey was in the hands of the French, a protectorate and was sucked up into French West Africa in 1904. It was not until 1960 that they attained Independence from the French. The citizens renamed the country Benin.
Cape Verde: Portuguese took ownership of the colony in 1462. The Portuguese also had custody of Guinea. There was a quarrel of the emancipation of the settlement and the mainland Guinea. This consignment was extremely for the Portuguese in 1975. They awarded the two countries independence with the view that the two countries could come together under a new state of Guinea-Bissau. Cape Verde came apart as sovereign republic in 1981.
In the 13th century the area was under the sway of Islam. It was not until the 18th and the 19th century that the British and the French were conscious of the condition. The British and the French became responsive of the circumstance but the British took control of the vicinity, it became British dependency in 1888. Gambia achieved independence in 1965.
The young generation, more distant from former colonists are of the opinion that foreign settlers in Africa have in one way or the other cemented the financial system in West Africa. European colonists exported unprocessed supplies to be produced in Europe. Fabricated produce were brought back and put up for sale in Africa. This coordination made obtainable mechanized nations in Europe with inexpensive unprocessed substances to increase their Cost-cutting estimate. West African raw materials included cotton, crude oil, and minerals and cocoa just to mention a few and in return machineries, electrical paraphernalia, and textiles and fiber to point out the minority. All past Settlers were trade collaborators of their earlier colonies in West Africa. As one would expect, it would be impracticable to try to be at odds with the cultivators in industrialized countries. It would average halting the hand of one who nourishes you. Worldwide trade laws should favour industrialized states. They have higher outlay of manual Labour, employment and levies.